Wednesday, March 25, 2020
Road to Hell Paper HW: Road to Hell Read the case study and answer 3 questions below. Submit a hardcopy (2 pages maximum) of your answers at class time. 1 . Identify at least 2 major mistakes Baker made in the final interview with Rennalls. Explain why they were mistakes and what he might have done instead. A: 2 major mistakes, 1) Baker knew a lot about Rennallss political views and racial issues sensitivity, but Baker made a mistake building his interview from his European perspective. Baker assumed that he gave some historical and personal suggestions that were not meant to be offensive. However, from Rennallss point of view, the suggestions were totally inappropriate. 2) Through the interview, Baker emphasized several times the importance and leading position of European staff in the company. In the effort to teach Rennalls to better cooperate with this leadership, Baker even offered a historical example, he put European culture on a pedestal of 300 years of development and left Barracania at the bottom of the human history. What he might have done instead. The main barrier to the problem solving is misunderstanding between people with different cultures. 1) Cultural diversity: being attentive to the culture values and orms of the foreign employees are very important. 2) Have the ability to integrate. 2. What actions should Baker take after receiving the resignation from Renalls? A: In my opinion, Baker is a racist, despite his unintentional behavior can be consi dered intentional. We will write a custom essay sample on Road to Hell specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Road to Hell specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Road to Hell specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer I think Baker should try to change his attitude and deal this problem carefully, anyhow he will always face this kind of issues in next Job and continue to go through the same problem. Thus Baker should make an apology to Rennalls and to persuade him to stay at the company. 3. Do you think that Remalls is a good match for Continental Ore? Explain why or why ot. What additional information do you need to answer this question? A: Rennalls is one of the brightest Barracanian prospects on the staff of Caribbean Bauxite, he is a good match for Continental Ore. However his well-educated made him sensitive to political, racial and equality issues involving relations between his culture and western influence. Rennalls should be change his behavior in sensitive to any sign of condescension on working with expatriates. This case is one of many examples of how people from different cultures and backgrounds do not take diversity into consideration. They evaluate and measure d conflicts.
Friday, March 6, 2020
And Then There Were None by Agatha Christie essays And Then There Were None by Agatha Christie, was about ten people chosen to go on an Island vacation. Their host (or hostess) is unknown. AKA U.N. Owen. One by one the guests die off in ordinance with the poem about the ten little Indians. After searching the Island from top to bottom and finding nothing, they conclude that it must be one of them, but who and why? The killer seemed to be Dr. Armstrong. The first two murders were dead giveaways (no pun intended). After Anthony Marston was poisoned, it was Dr. Armstrong who identified the poison. Potassium cyanide. The only way he could he knew that was if he put it there himself because it has no odor. The other of course would not have known that. The poison could also be very accusable to the doctor. In Mrs. Rogers case, (the 2nd murder) the doctor gave her what was said to sleep pills, but they could easily have been something else. Who would know? General MacArthur was the next to be killed. He was not poisoned but hit on the head with a lifesaver. This murder was committed while the men were searching the island, even though one single person had an alibi for his whereabouts when he was killed. Dr. Armstrong did stray from his group. When the General did not show up for lunch, Mr. Rogers offered to go and fetch him. Dr. Armstrong quickly volunteered instead. He came back to announce tha t he was dead. On the morning when they found Mr. Rogers dead, everyone overslept because he was not there to wake them up. Lombard awoke at 9:30 am. He woke the others, but Armstrong was already up and dressed, or, he was up and neatly dressed. After murdering Rogers, his clothes probably had some blood on them, so by the time Lombard knocked on his door, he was almost dressed fully in his clean clothes. Dr. Armstrong was the only one on the island with a needle (and access to poison) to be able to murder Emily Brent. After Miss. Brent came to Justice Wargrave. When Vera screams, everyo...
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
Book critique - Assignment Example Content Summary The book "The 5 Love Languages of Teenagers: The secret to Loving teens effectively" by Gary Chapman deals with teenagers and the bond they share with their parents. Teenage is a time of life at which an individual is establishing his moralities, social beliefs and personality. Therefore children in their teens need their parentÃ¢â¬â¢s support, acceptance and unconditional love. Teenagers are vulnerable to negative and accusing words; instead they require words of affirmation and affection. Spending quality time with your teenagers and having real conversations is vital and so is to give your free acts of service. Parents should give thought to their childÃ¢â¬â¢s mood and preferences and should show patience when anger comes along, to win with their children ultimately by making them see reason. But in the view of the author the most significant of all things is to keep loving your children unconditionally, that is to show your support even when they fail to come up to your expectations1. Evaluation "The 5 Love Languages of Teenagers: The secret to Loving teens effectively" by Gary Chapman is a manual to parent child relationship when the child hits his teens. It looks into the matters of routine relationships and gives cause to make them special. It does that by giving counsel to parents such as when teenagersÃ¢â¬â¢ provide the parents with a cause of ceremony; they should celebrate it with gifts and praise. A particularly neglected idea when it comes to respect childÃ¢â¬â¢s want for independence was emphasized that the teenagers should start being given suitable responsibilities so that they might not feel their lives to be useless. The book also devotes some chapters for times when trouble in the life of teenager or the parent child relationship occurs. For example it gives excellent advice upon times when your child is not being the communicative type, and parents are having a hard time understanding the root of his problems. In addi tion it has helpful advice for single parents, who are the neediest cases. Looking into cons, the book fails to address (at large) teenage children who have a natural inclination towards law breaking and misconduct or have fallen into seriously bad company. Overall the book is a gain to youth ministry because it delves into teenage psychology to a great extent and provides reasonable solutions to the underlying intricacy. Ã¢â¬Å"Middle School Ministry Made SimpleÃ¢â¬ by Kurt Johnston Author Information Kurt Johnston is working for junior high ministry from late 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s; to be specific he is the junior high Pastor at saddleback church in southern California. He has written a couple of books on the request of Standard publishing. His first book was Ã¢â¬Å"Controlled Chaos: Making Sense of Junior High MinistryÃ¢â¬ , whose upgraded version is presented in his new book "Middle School Ministry Made SimpleÃ¢â¬ . He lives at Lake forest, California with his wife Rachel and his two children Kayla and Cole. Content Summary The book "Middle School Ministry Made SimpleÃ¢â¬ and its author Kurt Johnston believe in the reforms that the junior high school world has been through and think it important to change the strategies to run junior high schools accordingly. The book provides a guideline on recruiting volunteers and the role they can play in middle school ministry by emphasizing on taking in a number of volunteers but
Tuesday, February 4, 2020
Plea Barganing - Essay Example A plea bargain permits both parties to keep away from a long criminal trial and may permit criminal defendants to stay protected from the risk of conviction at trial on a more grave charge. For instance, suppose there is a defendant of a criminal case charged with a crime robbery, the conviction of which would need imprisonment in state jail, he or she may be offered the chance to plead the guilty party to a misdemeanor robbery charge, which may not carry jail time. Plea bargaining is Ã¢â¬Å"the process whereby a criminal defendant and prosecutor reach a mutually satisfactory disposition of a criminal case, subject to court approvalÃ¢â¬ (Plea Bargaining 2012 para. 1). It can conclude a particular criminal case without a proceeding or a trial. It becomes successful when plea bargaining of the case results in a plea agreement between the defendant and prosecutor. In this agreement, Ã¢â¬Å"the defendant agrees to plead guilty without a trial, and, in return, the prosecutor agrees to dismiss certain charges or make favorable sentence recommendations to the court. Plea bargaining is expressly authorized in statutes and in court rulesÃ¢â¬ (Plea Bargaining 2012 para. 2). This is generally a known type of plea. It engages a negotiation of the particular charges (counts) or offenses that the defendant of the case will face at the proceeding or trial. Generally, in return for an appeal of "guilty" to a smaller charge, the prosecutor of the case will dismiss the superior or other charge(s) or counts. Example, instead of discharging charges for a first-degree murder, a prosecutor may admit a "guilty" appeal for manslaughter. Charge bargaining plays an empirically significant role in determining outcomes of the sentencing. In this type of bargaining, the defendant of the case pleads guilty in exchange for reducing the charges. Depending on the seriousness of the initial charge of the case, the only one who stands to achieve from charge bargaining is the accused or the
Monday, January 27, 2020
Mental Status Examination In order to thoroughly evaluate, Jason it would be very helpful if a Mental Status Examination is conducted. The MSE would give insight to the examinees thought process, thought content, perception, and cognition. Also, the examiner would be able to document the examinees appearance, mood, and affect. A semi-structural interview style may be the best approach to conduct the MSE. This approach would have standard questions but also give an opportunity for the examiner to build a rapport with the examinee. Therefore, the examiner could create an environment that would promote comfort and ease which should allow the examinee to become less guarded. A review of material that could unveil indicators of potential maladaptive behavior would be useful to enhance the examiners understanding of the examinee. Information such as prior psychological assessments and medical records would be very helpful components in unveiling indicators. This information would uncover any medical or psychological problems previously identified that could have contributed to the examinees behavior. Since it has been revealed that the examinee is taking the medication diazepam, it would be beneficial for the examiner to conduct research on the side effects and its reaction with other drugs. Perhaps, the results from a blood toxicology test would definitively determine all the drugs in Jasons body at the time he was arrested. This drug related information can give valuable indications that could explain the examinees behavior. A review of the examinees family psychological and medical history could give data on hereditary traits that could have added to the examinees behavior. In addition, a review of the examinees criminal record could give a timeline of how Jasons criminal activity progresses or digresses over the years. Thus, a review of the examinees criminal record could give insight to trends in the examinees maladaptive behavior. Other sources of information that could pose as good use are results of an intelligence test such as the WAIS-III and a personality test such as the MMPI-2. The WAIS-III will examine Jasons vocabulary level, abstract thinking, concentration, immediate memory, judgment, alertness to details and a host of other intelligence measures (Kaplan Saccuzzo, 2005). In essence, the WAIS-III will show if Jason is able to act with purpose, to think logically and to deal effectively with his surroundings (Kaplan Saccuzzo, 2005). The MMPI-2, on the other hand, measures Jasons tendency to possess some type of psychopathy. The MMPI-2 is a self- report that examines Jasons level of over concern of bodily symptoms, level of depression, level of over dramatization, level of psychopathic deviates, level of paranoia, level of schizophrenic tendencies, and level of impulse control (Kaplan Saccuzzo, 2005). It should be noted that the MMPI-2 only gives a hypothesis of psychopathy and does not give a diagn osis. An extensive psychological examination would be needed in order to properly diagnosis the hypothesis. Lastly, collateral contacts which is information gathered from individuals closely associated or related to the examinee could give useful information to the examiner. Some of the individuals that could be interviewed are family members, employers, co-workers, friends, and neighbors. By interviewing people in different facets of the subjects life the examiner can get an idea of how the subjects behavior diverges in different environments. In turn this would give the examiner a wholistic view of Jasons psychological state. Provide a possible multi-axial diagnosis (based on all five (5) axes of the DSM-IV-TR) for this individual. In narrative form, describe your differential diagnostic thought process used to reach your hypotheses. What additional information would you need for each of the possible diagnoses in order to confirm your diagnoses and rule out the others? Axis I of the DSM-IV-TR multiaxial assessment lists clinical disorders and other conditions that may be a focus of clinical attention (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). One clinical condition that can be considered is Intermittent Explosive Disorder (Code Number 312.34) (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). This is an Impulse-Control Disorder that is characterized by discrete episodes of failure to resist aggressive impulses resulting in serious assaults or destruction of property (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). The DSM IV-TR states that individuals who suffer from Intermittent Explosive Disorder usually exhibit signs of feeling upset, remorseful, regretful or embarrassed after an aggressive incident (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). It has been reported that Jason has had problems controlling aggressive impulse in the past. The vignette notes that signs of remorse were seen after aggressive incidents in the past such as after Jason threatened his Aunt with a knife it was reported he was remorseful about the incident. Also, after stabbing the victim, Jasons act of covering the body could be interpreted as a sign of remorse. Before Intermittent Explosive Disorder is officially diagnosis other clinical condition should be ruled out. One condition that can be considered is Jason ingestion of several different types of substances in a 24-48 hour time period. The vignette suggests that Jason may have had diazepam, acid, and alcohol in his system at the time of the offense. As suggested previously, a toxicology test will definitively indicate the substances present in Jasons body at the time of his offense. After it has been determined that Jasons behavior was not induced by a reaction to a substance a diagnosis of Intermittent Explosive Disorder can be more confidently suggested. The second axis on the DSM-IV-TR multiaxial assessment lists and describes personality disorders and signs of mental retardation (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). The examiner can explore the possibility of Jason exhibiting signs of Borderline Personality Disorder. The DSM-IV-TR describes Borderline Personality Disorder as a pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects and pronounced impulsivity. Jasons parents assert he did not develop stable peer friendships throughout his formative school years. In adulthood, Jason did have a girlfriend and the relationship was described as a stabilizing influence; however the relationship was short-lived. Once Jasons relationship with his girlfriend dissipated he reacted by causing havoc at his grandmothers cottage. It was noted that several cottages were destroyed and vandalized cottages. This outburst of uncontrolled emotion and aggression after a break-up is typical behavior of a person suffering from Borderline Personality Disorder. The DSM-IV-TR states that patients with Borderline Personality Disorder Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ experience intense abandonment fears and inappropriate anger even when faced with realistic time-limited separation (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Although the diagnostic criteria for Borderline Personality Disorder gives an onset of early adulthood, Jason may have displayed traits of the disorder in his early teens after the death of his maternal grandfather. It is reported that Jason initiated his use of Marijuana and begin to steal from his parent the same year his grandfather died. This behavior may have been indicative of his inability to handle separation from someone he had idealized which is a characteristic of someone suffering from Borderline Personality Disorder. However, the DSM-IV-TR does specify that young adults with identity problems and that may be involved in substance use could fleetingly display behaviors that might falsely give the impression of Borderline Personality Disorder (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Therefore, observation and more in depth research on Jason would be needed to definitively diagnosis Borderline Personality Disorder. An analysis of Jasons results from the MMPI-2 could give insight for a more conclusive diagnosis. Another thing to consider in diagnosing Jason with Borderline Personality Disorder is that approximately 75% of individuals diagnosed with the disorder are women. Therefore, Jason being diagnosed with the disorder would place him as a minority and the diagnosis under careful consideration. The third axis on the multiaxial assessment details general medical conditions that could affect ones psychological functionality (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). It has not been reported that Jason suffers from any specific physical condition that could affect his psychological functionality. However, a thorough review of his medical record would be needed to definitively exclude any medical conditional that could have attributed to his behavior. Some of the areas of medical concern would be head injuries and diseases that affect the nervous system. These types of medical conditions are widely known to affect a persons psyche. It is known that some of our emotions are regulated through the frontal lobe of the brain. For example, individuals that have endured an injury to the frontal lobe may have anger management problems or trouble controlling their emotion. The fourth axis focuses on psychosocial and environmental problems such as problems with primary support group, occupational problems, educational problems and economic problems (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Jason appears to have problems maintaining meaningful relationships. Jasons break-up with his girlfriend could have been a contributing catalyst in his aggressive behavior. This break-up may have disrupted Jasons support system and caused him to have feelings of abandonment. It can be inferred that the abandonment could have caused him to have feelings of instability and lack of control. The examiner would need to discuss Jasons feeling regarding the break-up during assessment sessions in order to confidently report its association with the offense at hand. Another issue that can be explored is Jasons inability to maintain attendance while in formative school which continued into his inability to maintain attendance at a job in adulthood. This inconsistent attendance could be related to Jasons substance use which indirectly affects his ability to productively operate in his social environment. The examiner would need to delve into Jasons substance use and feelings of his self-image to address this issue. The fifth axis quantifies a functionality level the use of the GAF scale ranges from 0-100 with 0 being inadequate information and 100 being superior functioning (American Psychiatric Association, 2000.) Jason shows signs that he could hurt others or herself. He is very coherent of his surroundings. However, Jason has difficulty remembering details regarding the stabbing. The examinee appears to understand place, time and current events. On the other hand, Jason has difficulty being self-sufficient and maintaining a job which is partly due to his substance use. Thus, Jason has a mid-level GAF with a range of 40-60. Legal Theory and Application Using information from the provided vignette, describe the background, current presentation, and behavior of the client from a perspective which takes into consideration theories of offender and/or victim psychology and personality/psychopathology theories to support your position. (Do not simply restate the clients presentation from the vignette. Provide a theoretical-based discussion of the client that will later help guide your suggested treatment approach. For example, if you were going to recommend Gestalt treatment, you would provide a theoretical formulation from a Gestalt perspective in this section). A suitable way to explain the existence of maladaptive behavior such as over exertion of aggression as presented by Jason is through the Diathesis-Stress Model. The word diathesis means, in basic terms, a physical condition that fashions a person more than usually susceptible to certain diseases (Merriam-Websters online dictionary, n.d.). Thus, the Diathesis-Stress Model says that each person inherits certain physical weaknesses to problems that may or may not surface contingent on what stresses occur in his or her life (Eberhart, Auerbach, Bigda-Peyton, Abela, 2011). Thus, the diathesis-stress model would say a person may have a neurotransmitter malfunction but the symptoms of this malfunction will not surface unless some life stressor is presented. A life inflicted stressor could be abuse, neglect or simply disappointment. an informative diathesis-stress analysis when defendants who appear to be functioning fairly well at present are claiming temporary insanity at the time of an alleged offense. Current indications of characterologically limited resources for coping with stress, combined with obviously stressful circumstances or surroundings at the time of an offense, increase the likelihood that a defendant might have experienced a transient episode of cognitive incapacity or behavioral dyscontrol. Conversely, the better the coping resources shown by a defendants current test responses, and the less stress the defendant appeared to be experiencing prior to and during the commission of an alleged offense, the less likely the person would have been at that previous time to suffer a psychological breakdown accompanied by loss of cognitive or volitional capacities. (Goldstein 132) Describe the psycho-legal standards and/or definitions for each of the following: competence to stand trial, risk of dangerousness, and insanity. Identify and describe one or more landmark case(s) for each standard (at least three cases total). Describe the elements or issues that a mental health professional usually focuses on when assessing a persons adjudicative competence, risk and insanity, and any additional items that might be especially important to focus on in the provided vignette. A person is competent to stand trial if there is an understanding of the trial process, the ability to assist counsel for defense, and the ability to make important decisions to waive constitutional rights (Poythress, 2006). The standards of competence were created during the landmark case, Dusky v. United States, 362 U.S. 402 (1960) (Bartol Bartol, 2008). During this case it was concluded that the defendant has to have sufficient present ability to consult with his lawyer with a reasonable degree of rational understanding and a rational as well as factual understanding of the proceedings against him in order to stand (Bartol Bartol, 2008). However, since competency can change, if Jason shows signs of incompetency he can be medicated to restore competency even if he does not want to take the medication. This forced medication for competency was established in the court case United States v. Sell (2003),which held that if certain requirements are met, those defendants adjudicated as incompetent to stand trial might be medicated contrary to their will for the solitary resolution of instituting or restoring trial competency (Goldstein, 2006). It should be noted that the case Jackson v. Indiana (1972) established the limitations on the duration of commitments for competency restoration. This court ruling stated that, due process requires that the nature and duration of commitment bear some reasonable relation to the purpose for which the individual is committed. In other words, incompetent defendants cannot be held indefinitely if there is no likelihood that the defendant will be restored and criminal proceedings resumed. T hey can, however, be committed to mental institutions under the civil law (Bartol 161-162). The establishment of criminal responsibility is contingent on the sanity of a person at the time of their alleged offense (Goldstein, 2006). Being sane at the time of an offense can be delineated as being able to recognize the criminality of ones illegal actions and understand the wrongfulness of the behavior (Goldstein, 2006). A Forensic psychologist could examine Jason using psychological instruments that support the right/wrong test for sanity or the Irresistible Impulse test for sanity. The right/wrong test also known as the MNaghten Rule, gives emphasis to the cognitive elements of human beings (Bartol Bartol, 2008). First the person must be aware and know what he or she was doing at the time of the illegal act (Bartol Bartol, 2008). Second the person must know or understand right from wrong in the moral sense (Bartol Bartol, 2008). The right/wrong test has no degrees of incapacity; therefore a person is either right or wrong, with no gray area. On the other hand, the Irresistible Impulse test considers that a person may be aware of the wrongfulness of their conduct, be aware of what is right or wrong in a particular set of circumstances, but still be incapable to do right in the face of overpowering forces from irrepressible impulses ( Bartol Bartol, 2008). In other words, certain circumstances cause the person to uncontrollably commit a crime, almost like a wild beast ( Bartol Bartol, 2008). The court system has established that if a person was not in control of his or her mental processes at the time of the offense, then there are grounds for absolving that person of some or all responsibility for the offense (Bartol Bartol, 2008). However, each jurisdiction differs in the extent they accept both these criteria. (Bartol Bartol, 2008). For example the Official Code of Georgia (O.C.G.A.) 16-3-2 states, A person shall not be found guilty of a crime if, at the time of the act, omission, or negligence constituting the crime, the person did not have mental capacity to distinguish between right and wrong in relation to such act, omission, or negligence. Also, the O.C.G.A. 16-3-3 states, A person shall not be found guilty of a crime when, at the time of the act, omission, or negligence constituting the crime, the person, because of mental disease, injury, or congenital deficiency, acted as he did because of a delusional compulsion as to such act which overmastered his will t o resist committing the crime. These two statutes institute a standard for mitigating circumstances in criminal responsibility and thus ground work for the insanity plea. If it can be established that Jason was in fact suffering from some form of a delusional compulsion then it can be argued that there are mitigating circumstances to his criminal responsibility as established by O.C.G.A. 16-3-3. Bartol and Bartol define risk assessment as the initiative in which clinicians offer probabilities that a given individual will engage in violent or otherwise antisocial behavior based on known factors relating to the individual. (Bartol- criminal behavior ,649). In 1976, the California Supreme Court created what many thought to be the national standard for mental health professionals when a client presents a threat to an identified person. In Tarasoff v. Regents of the University of California (1976), the highest California state court ruled that the psychotherapist of a feasibly violent patient had a duty to protect any person identified as a potential victim ( ). The California Supreme Court ruling brought forth the idea that societys necessity for protection overshadowed a clients right to confidentiality ( ). The Tarasoff case answered the question of what responsibility therapists had to third parties in cautioning them of potential injurious behavior from their clients. However, over the years many states have rejected the ruling in the Tarasoff case. Despite the questionable statutory duty to warn, many practitioners have incorporated the standard set by Tarasoff as a standard of practice. (Bartol- criminal behavior 269) The APA Code of Ethics section 4.05 (2002) gives reference to this idea of a duty to warn by indicating that psychologist may disclose confidential information without the consent of the individual to protect the client/patient, psychologist or others from harm. Research and Evaluation Describe tests or assessment procedures you would employ to address these forensic issues (competence to stand trial, risk of dangerousness, and insanity) (you may refer to these from the Psychological Theory and Assessment Section A. if you already covered them there), and discuss what your anticipated conclusions would be based upon information provided in the vignette. The examiner can use a three prong evaluation to determine if the examinee is competent to stand trial. The first prong evaluates if the person is able to understand the roles of the various officers of the court. The second prong evaluates if the person can understand that he or he is charged with a crime and could possibly go to prison or be put on probation. The last prong evaluates if the defendant can rationally and effectively assist his or her attorney to aid in defense. Numerous assessment instruments have been developed in an attempt to quantify and measure trial competency. One tool that has become popular is the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool-Criminal Adjudication (MacCAT-CA) (Steinberg, 2003). This is a forensic assessment instrument created to assess the three abilities thought to be described in the Dusky standard for competency which are understanding, appreciation, and reasoning (Steinberg, 2003). The MaCAT-CA is comprised of 22 items that break down into three subscales to delineate the three abilities before mentioned (Jacobs, Ryba Zapf, 2008). At this time, Jason appears to be competent to stand trial based on the fact he is literate, is able to give written consent for the evaluation, and is able to rationalize that something adversely could happen depending on the courts perception of him. To officially establish competency in Jason the three prong examination as described previously would have to be administered. Risk assessments have two components the raw numbers from an actuarial tool and values (Szmukler, 2003). Numbers refer to the probability that a confrontational occurrence will transpire in a certain period of time (Szmukler, 2003). The methods in calculating these numbers are mathematical and statistical (Szmukler, 2003). Basically numbers are just the results from a risk assessment instrument. A recently developed risk assessment instrument is the Historical/Clinical/Risk Management (HCR-20) scale; developed by Christopher Webster and his colleagues (Webster, Douglas, Eaves, Hart, 1997). The HCR bases its predictive power on three major areas: past or historical factors, clinical or current factors, and risk management factors. The HCR contains 10 historical items, 5 clinical items, and 5 risk management items, for a total of 20 items. The historical items include previous violence, which, as we have learned, is one of the strongest predictors of future violence. Another historica l or H item is young age at first violent incident (Webster et al., 1997, p. 267). In other words, a persons young age at the time of the first violent incident can predict a violent pattern will persist into the future. Early maladjustment at home, at school, or in the community is another predictive H item. Other H items in the HCR-20 are relationship instability, employment problems, substance use problems, and major mental illness (particularly psychotic or mood disorders). Clinical or C items include lack of insight, negative attitudes (antisocial, hostile, angry), and active symptoms of major mental illness (Webster et al., 1997, p. 263). Active symptoms of serious mental illness that include delusional systems characterized by sadistic fantasies and homicidal and suicidal ideation are especially related to violence prediction. Risk management or R variables are related to the future circumstances of the individuals they are evaluating-that is, whether the person being evaluat ed is likely to have adequate housing, meals, daily activities, and finances. Research suggests that individuals without these basics are at higher risk for violence than those who have these needs managed and taken care of. Examples of R items are lack of personal support, noncompliance with remediation attempts, feasibility of future plans, and stress. The researchers of the HCR-20 find that the historical (H) items are the strongest for predicting future violent behavior (Webster et al., 1997), and C items are second strongest (Borum, 1996). The HCR-20 is still relatively new and will need ongoing research before it receives widespread acceptance as a valid risk-assessment instrument. (Bartol criminal behavior 275) Values represent the methods of connecting a value to the risk and deciding what should be done about the potential risk (Szmukler, 2003). Thus, values can be seen as the rate at which violent acts occur in the population of interest. This value is significant to the predictive abilities of any risk assessment instrument. This value is sometimes known as the base rate. Using only the information from a risk assessment tool without considering the environmental factors or population can make an assessment skewed. The base rate takes into consideration the population of which the assessed individual is apart. If the rate of violence in the population is low it should naturally lower the possibility of at risk behavior. A simple explanation for this logic is that the individuals of this low violent rate population may not have ideologies that comprise of violent behavior. This lack of cognitive thoughts of violence and lack of examples of violent acts lower the individuals potential to act violently. Therefore, it is possible that a risk assessment tool that is standardized based on a larger more diverse population can render results that show high risks for violence for an individual in a smaller less diverse population. An overall view of both the raw numbers from the assessment and a consideration of the populations base rate would give a better result in calculating risk assessments. Thus, the risk assessment tool gives a hypothesis or educated prediction for a potential risk and should be completed. The base rate gives direction and depth to the hypothesis. Thus, both components are needed and valuable to the assessment. Develop one empirically supported therapeutic treatment plan for the client in the vignette. Please make sure you identify the name of the theory your treatment plan is based on and summarize the empirical evidence with appropriate citations to support your treatment choice in working with this client. Be sure to discuss the effectiveness and limitations in working with this particular client (including effectiveness/limitations in working with this particular clients background using the above theories and treatment plans) A treatment plan following a Cognitive behavioral therapy model could be used to help Jason with his cycles of aggressive behavior. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a therapeutic modality that combines various aspects of several different therapeutic approaches including behavioral, cognitive, rational, emotive, and others. The hallmark of CBT is the assumption that distress is a result of improper or faulty cognitive framing that provides the foundation for self-defeating thoughts that lead to maladaptive behaviors. Over the last couple of decades CBT has been the focus of extensive research aimed at validating its theoretical foundation and therapeutic techniques. Much of the research reports favorable outcomes within a variety of settings as CBT is often considered among the most diverse therapeutic modalities available to practitioners. (Hanser 116) Most research concludes that it has been reasonably successful or shows considerable promise in reducing recidivism in violent offenders and serious repetitive offenders (Gacono et al., 2001). However, one of the major shortcomings of the current research is the overreliance on self-report measures to determine treatment gain (Serin Preston, 2001). Although self-report information is important because it may reflect an offenders self-perception, it is also fraught with many serious problems, especially when administered under duress within a correctional environment. (Bartol 623). Cognitive behavior therapies (CBT) rely on changing individual behavioral patterns by changing the persons thoughts, beliefs, and attitudes. CBT emerged during the past 30 years as a result of dissatisfaction with the theoretical and empirical bases of strictly behavior therapy approach. CBT has become the preferred treatment approach for dealing with certain groups of offenders, including sex offenders, v iolent offenders, and a variety of persistent property offenders. Bonta and Cormier (1999) rightfully note that, The research on the cognitive-behavioural treatment of offenders has led to wide acceptance of this approach as the preferred method for treating offenders. (Bartol 621-622) Interpersonal Effectiveness What factors or cultural considerations would you take into account in rendering diagnoses, case conceptualization, and treatment planning? What other cultural factors may be salient for this client? In a psychological examination for diagnosis and treat culture can have an impact on the exhibition of psychological disorders and the examiners interpretation of the behavior being exhibited. Also, information being gathered from an assessment for diagnoses can be misconstrued if the examiner does not have a good understanding of the cultural social practices of the person being examined. The examiner should obtain as much cultural information on the client as possible before a diagnosis or treatment plan is created. The cultural Also, if the clients cultural background is tremendously outside the realm of the examiners understanding it may be wise to consult with an expert to help reduce the cultural impediment. Some of the issues that affect diagnosis in regards to culture differences are the clinician attitudes, beliefs, and biases. No one is exempt from having bias beliefs, thus an examiner should fully inspect his or her biases before being involved in a psychological assessment. The bias could skew the examiners report and make the assessment invalid. For example if a clinician is diagnosing an individual from a different cultural background and does not have an clear understanding of the customs of that culture then the clinician may interpret some behavior as being adverse. However, the person may just be following the customs of their culture. Thus, multicultural competence is of major importance in case conceptualization. Another cultural impact on diagnosing and creating treatment plans is language barriers. Since language is the primary source of communication the examiner and the client must be able to properly communicate in order to obtain information for the assessment. Language barriers are not just limited to different languages sometimes the examiner and examinee may have different understandings of words or phrases. Of greatest concern to assessment is the notion of conceptual equivalence or whether the underlying construct (construct definition: an image, idea, or theory, especially a complex one formed from a number of simpler elements. ) holds the same meaning across groups. A common example of difficulty is when one group defines (i.e.specific behaviors as mental illness or psychopathology while another group views the same behaviors as normative) and not associated with a cluster of diagnostic symptoms. The APA(American Psychological Association) created a set of guidelines known as the Guidelines on Multicultural Education, Training, Research, Practice, and Organizational Change for Psychologists to move towards more multicultural competence individuals. These guidelines aid in recognizing b
Saturday, January 18, 2020
To one of in particular they were more important, he clung to them like they were his own personal treasures we never understood why until he no longer came to see us on the summers. Looking up to the sky filled with the three moons shining down on the water's edge with their dazzling rays of white, blue and green mixing into one of the water's surface. I looked beside me at my companions, my friends and our own family. They all stared up with the same expression as me, amazement. Pure and simple. It was unheard of, we never understood why or what was happening.Little did we know this night would change us for ever. There are five of us in total, me, my little sister Cherish, Julian, Ales and Sib. I'm the second older out of all of us, Sib being the first oldest at 13 years old, IM only a month younger than him myself. My name is Rain, with my long black hair and mature looking face, you'd think I was older however my immaturity gave me away often. Cherish is a year younger than but a lot smarter and kind, always helping those in need, you'd think she was my big sister not the other way around.Her long red curly hair she is by far the prettiest out of the two of us and also the favorite In the family. I don't let that bother me though because even though they look on their veils and she never let It Influence her opinion of me. For this she Is my best friend and my sister. Julian is on my right. He is the same age as Cherish just a week older than her in fact. He is our best friend from our home village, Haven. With his wits, careless semi, blond hair and glasses, he could be considered a Ã¢â¬Å"hot nerdÃ¢â¬ in Cherries words.She's ad a big crush on him forever and I myself don't see the appeal, he's Just Julian to me. Sadly, he never seems to notices her feelings even though he cares but never admits, I'm not going to tell them though. Next to Julian is Ales, we haven't known him very long only about two-three week at that time. He was moody and alone so Ch erish suggested we ask him to Join us, even though I was against It they went ahead anyway. No matter how much I didn't Like him he still stayed with the group.I eventually grew accustomed to his moodiness but still he aggravated me for some no understandable reason. Sib Is sat down In front of the water's edge actually totally casual about the whole situation. Sib is short for Sebastian but since I couldn't pronounce it he let me call in his own world and went at his own pace or so it seemed. We didn't know what happened until a couple months after the last summer. We never saw him again in person, but we all kept in touch through letters. Sib was to be the next lord of Brooklets, after that summer camp on his 13th he wasn't allowed to attend again.His father had decided to bring his training forward as he had grown ill. He wrote to us every chance he got though. Times have changed. I'm now 18 years old and I'm the only one standing here besides the water's edge, everyone has their own place where they belong. I know where I belong and it's right here, though I have to leave for a while. There is something important that I have to do, not Just for me, for all of us. We only hear from hear from Ales every couple of months which saddens me, he hardly talks about his life or what he's doing.Here I am alone, reading everyone's letters for the last time, the sun hitting the jack of my neck with full force, that I have to cover myself with my Jacket, I curl up and let the breeze whoosh around me calmly, bringing my knees up to my chin. I sigh and stand, looking around me one last time, the trees are dancing and the whole place is alive with music all Joyous. I will with all my might that this one place remains untouched from the horrors that are about to arise all around. I turn my back, and walk to my car, looking back over my shoulder once last time, thinking to myself. Where did it all go wrong and why are we in the middle of it? Creative writing Trapped I'm standing out the front of the world's scariest horror house, In universal Studios, Hollywood. Where I am about to enter through the entrance when my friend suggests that it's not a very good idea, but shrug and say what could possibly happen besides being scared half to death. We enter. It's dark, the walls feel close, there's an awful smell to the place, as If someone has died inside. I feel nervous because I don't know what's coming in the distance, and I have what feels like a hundred butterflies flying around in my stomach.I can feel the hairs on my arms and on the back of my neck beginning to rise. I am getting cold chills down my spine. My heart rate is increasing, I feel as though my heart is beginning to rise out of my chest. We walk through, a chucks doll appears out from the frame cut out of the wall, my heart skips a beat and I don't think much of it, it scares me a little and let out a scream, I think to myself this isn't so bad after all, I think I spoke to s oon.After that various horror film characters start Jumping out and appearing around corners as I alike through and I am beginning to freak out. Suddenly, I am cornered by what seems to be a very frightening clown. He has a large crack in his skull it seems to be as wide as the grand canyon, his face is all distorted and has open flesh wounds all over, his eyes are as black as the ace of spades, with black rings circling them, his outfit has been ripped and has blood all over it, his immense red nose is directly in front of mine.He seems to becoming closer and closer and I have no where else to go, so I crouch down and hope he'll disappear as non as I drop to the floor In fear, he finally backs away and I try and make a run for It so I can get out as fast as possible. I run as fast as possible but I have come too room full of mirrors, I'm disorientated, I feel as though the whole room is spinning around me and don't know which ways the way out, I start running towards the way I thin k is the exit but instead it's a mirror, I run directly at it.I hit it with such force. Everything turns too blur and starts going In slow motion as If was in a dream. I feel pain miming from my mouth, my tongue make's Its way to my two front teeth, but they don't feel Like teeth anymore, more like sharp razors In my mouth, In this split second of a moment I finally realize what has happened, I've knocked half of my two front teeth out, I hold out my hand, and there lies half a tooth in a pool of blood, I freak out.I start to panic and I start screaming, it's still pitch black inside, with hardly any light. People around me don't understand what's going on and they think I'm still scared, sees the blood pouring out of my nose and mouth and runs to get help. I continue screaming looking for a way out, I feel trapped, I feel claustrophobic, I'm in fear that another actor will come and frighten me, I bang on all the walls firmly pleading for someone to get me out, but it seems as thoug h no one is listening and I feel as though I'm on my own.I have never felt or experienced this sensation before, and I am terrified. My friend finally comes back with an amusement park worker to escort me out, I feel safe with her by my side telling me she'll get me out safely and that'll everything will be okay. Walking along the wall, a werewolf Jumps out and attempts to scare me and succeeds, the amusement park worker firmly yells out to him to stop and he realizes that something is seriously wrong he stops and backs away into his spot.I'm in so much shock, I start to scream even louder. In front of me I can see a crack of a bright white light and its increasingly getting larger and larger and within a blink, I am escorted out, I am finally out and feel a sense of relief, as though a ghostly presence has disappeared, although my legs give way and I can not hysterically stand any longer, I drop to the steps close by and remove my hands from my mouth and nose, my hands are bright r ed from all the blood that has poured out.At this point I am still screaming, it's a long, loud, piercing cry, I'm still in shock and can not believe what has Just happened, the worker hands me a handful of tissues and tells me to continue breathing. I am continuously screaming, with an endless flow of tears, I cry, with choking sobs, my eyes have gone red and puffy, my nose is still bleeding, blood seems to be flowing out. I have managed to calm myself down. I take a deep breath. Creative writing Trapped I'm standing out the front of the world's scariest horror house, In universal Studios, Hollywood. Where I am about to enter through the entrance when my friend suggests that it's not a very good idea, but shrug and say what could possibly happen besides being scared half to death. We enter. It's dark, the walls feel close, there's an awful smell to the place, as If someone has died inside. I feel nervous because I don't know what's coming in the distance, and I have what feels like a hundred butterflies flying around in my stomach.I can feel the hairs on my arms and on the back of my neck beginning to rise. I am getting cold chills down my spine. My heart rate is increasing, I feel as though my heart is beginning to rise out of my chest. We walk through, a chucks doll appears out from the frame cut out of the wall, my heart skips a beat and I don't think much of it, it scares me a little and let out a scream, I think to myself this isn't so bad after all, I think I spoke to s oon.After that various horror film characters start Jumping out and appearing around corners as I alike through and I am beginning to freak out. Suddenly, I am cornered by what seems to be a very frightening clown. He has a large crack in his skull it seems to be as wide as the grand canyon, his face is all distorted and has open flesh wounds all over, his eyes are as black as the ace of spades, with black rings circling them, his outfit has been ripped and has blood all over it, his immense red nose is directly in front of mine.He seems to becoming closer and closer and I have no where else to go, so I crouch down and hope he'll disappear as non as I drop to the floor In fear, he finally backs away and I try and make a run for It so I can get out as fast as possible. I run as fast as possible but I have come too room full of mirrors, I'm disorientated, I feel as though the whole room is spinning around me and don't know which ways the way out, I start running towards the way I thin k is the exit but instead it's a mirror, I run directly at it.I hit it with such force. Everything turns too blur and starts going In slow motion as If was in a dream. I feel pain miming from my mouth, my tongue make's Its way to my two front teeth, but they don't feel Like teeth anymore, more like sharp razors In my mouth, In this split second of a moment I finally realize what has happened, I've knocked half of my two front teeth out, I hold out my hand, and there lies half a tooth in a pool of blood, I freak out.I start to panic and I start screaming, it's still pitch black inside, with hardly any light. People around me don't understand what's going on and they think I'm still scared, sees the blood pouring out of my nose and mouth and runs to get help. I continue screaming looking for a way out, I feel trapped, I feel claustrophobic, I'm in fear that another actor will come and frighten me, I bang on all the walls firmly pleading for someone to get me out, but it seems as thoug h no one is listening and I feel as though I'm on my own.I have never felt or experienced this sensation before, and I am terrified. My friend finally comes back with an amusement park worker to escort me out, I feel safe with her by my side telling me she'll get me out safely and that'll everything will be okay. Walking along the wall, a werewolf Jumps out and attempts to scare me and succeeds, the amusement park worker firmly yells out to him to stop and he realizes that something is seriously wrong he stops and backs away into his spot.I'm in so much shock, I start to scream even louder. In front of me I can see a crack of a bright white light and its increasingly getting larger and larger and within a blink, I am escorted out, I am finally out and feel a sense of relief, as though a ghostly presence has disappeared, although my legs give way and I can not hysterically stand any longer, I drop to the steps close by and remove my hands from my mouth and nose, my hands are bright r ed from all the blood that has poured out.At this point I am still screaming, it's a long, loud, piercing cry, I'm still in shock and can not believe what has Just happened, the worker hands me a handful of tissues and tells me to continue breathing. I am continuously screaming, with an endless flow of tears, I cry, with choking sobs, my eyes have gone red and puffy, my nose is still bleeding, blood seems to be flowing out. I have managed to calm myself down. I take a deep breath. Creative writing Trapped I'm standing out the front of the world's scariest horror house, In universal Studios, Hollywood. Where I am about to enter through the entrance when my friend suggests that it's not a very good idea, but shrug and say what could possibly happen besides being scared half to death. We enter. It's dark, the walls feel close, there's an awful smell to the place, as If someone has died inside. I feel nervous because I don't know what's coming in the distance, and I have what feels like a hundred butterflies flying around in my stomach.I can feel the hairs on my arms and on the back of my neck beginning to rise. I am getting cold chills down my spine. My heart rate is increasing, I feel as though my heart is beginning to rise out of my chest. We walk through, a chucks doll appears out from the frame cut out of the wall, my heart skips a beat and I don't think much of it, it scares me a little and let out a scream, I think to myself this isn't so bad after all, I think I spoke to s oon.After that various horror film characters start Jumping out and appearing around corners as I alike through and I am beginning to freak out. Suddenly, I am cornered by what seems to be a very frightening clown. He has a large crack in his skull it seems to be as wide as the grand canyon, his face is all distorted and has open flesh wounds all over, his eyes are as black as the ace of spades, with black rings circling them, his outfit has been ripped and has blood all over it, his immense red nose is directly in front of mine.He seems to becoming closer and closer and I have no where else to go, so I crouch down and hope he'll disappear as non as I drop to the floor In fear, he finally backs away and I try and make a run for It so I can get out as fast as possible. I run as fast as possible but I have come too room full of mirrors, I'm disorientated, I feel as though the whole room is spinning around me and don't know which ways the way out, I start running towards the way I thin k is the exit but instead it's a mirror, I run directly at it.I hit it with such force. Everything turns too blur and starts going In slow motion as If was in a dream. I feel pain miming from my mouth, my tongue make's Its way to my two front teeth, but they don't feel Like teeth anymore, more like sharp razors In my mouth, In this split second of a moment I finally realize what has happened, I've knocked half of my two front teeth out, I hold out my hand, and there lies half a tooth in a pool of blood, I freak out.I start to panic and I start screaming, it's still pitch black inside, with hardly any light. People around me don't understand what's going on and they think I'm still scared, sees the blood pouring out of my nose and mouth and runs to get help. I continue screaming looking for a way out, I feel trapped, I feel claustrophobic, I'm in fear that another actor will come and frighten me, I bang on all the walls firmly pleading for someone to get me out, but it seems as thoug h no one is listening and I feel as though I'm on my own.I have never felt or experienced this sensation before, and I am terrified. My friend finally comes back with an amusement park worker to escort me out, I feel safe with her by my side telling me she'll get me out safely and that'll everything will be okay. Walking along the wall, a werewolf Jumps out and attempts to scare me and succeeds, the amusement park worker firmly yells out to him to stop and he realizes that something is seriously wrong he stops and backs away into his spot.I'm in so much shock, I start to scream even louder. In front of me I can see a crack of a bright white light and its increasingly getting larger and larger and within a blink, I am escorted out, I am finally out and feel a sense of relief, as though a ghostly presence has disappeared, although my legs give way and I can not hysterically stand any longer, I drop to the steps close by and remove my hands from my mouth and nose, my hands are bright r ed from all the blood that has poured out.At this point I am still screaming, it's a long, loud, piercing cry, I'm still in shock and can not believe what has Just happened, the worker hands me a handful of tissues and tells me to continue breathing. I am continuously screaming, with an endless flow of tears, I cry, with choking sobs, my eyes have gone red and puffy, my nose is still bleeding, blood seems to be flowing out. I have managed to calm myself down. I take a deep breath.
Friday, January 10, 2020
A student has an Idea; a great, huge, expansive Idea. She wants to write about It, so she turns to the only way she knows how to write. The Five Paragraph Theme. In all of her years of school, she has been led to believe that it is the only good way to write an essay. In the process of writing her essay and forcing all of her ideas into three main topics, she loses a great deal of the important information she had previously planned to write about.But that's okay, she thinks, because at least her writing is well organized and written in an Ã¢â¬Å"acceptableÃ¢â¬ way, right? Wrong! All their lives, students have been manipulated into believing that five paragraphs in an essay is the only way to go. In reality however, according to Mrs.. Kimberly Wesley, an English teacher at Berkeley Preparatory School, Tampa, Florida, becoming complacent with only being able to write In one format Ã¢â¬Å"stunts the growth of human mindsÃ¢â¬ (57). The FTP was meant to help students with their wri ting and organizational skills after they mastered the art of writing In Itself.Instead, what's been happening Is that teachers eve become satisfied with staying on the edge of the status quo, and have fallen back on using the simply structured Ã¢â¬Å"national phenomenonÃ¢â¬ FTP as their main teaching method to teach their students how to write efficiently. To create an easy grading system and keep organized order in the class so students think they know what they're doing, they have forced the belief on the children that the FTP is the only way they will ever, and should ever write essays.I myself remember on separate occasions in Junior high when I would receive less than satisfactory grades mainly cause I didn't stick expressly to the FTP. With time, I conformed to the idea, as all of my classmates with me and before me had. Now, In high school, learning that It's not the only way to write, and that it's actually desired to write In a different format, comes as a challenge as well as a relief to me.Along with so many others, I had unwittingly fallen prey to the complacence that came with the belief that I had learned all that my teachers wanted from me, and that besides more complicated topics, not much more would ever be expected of me. Changing the way I've been rating for years will not be impossible, but it will be an uphill road. If a teacher does not challenge a student, they will not ever reach their full potential.When students believe they must stay strictly within their guidelines for their essays, they Ã¢â¬Å"carry seeds of critical thought that are never allowed to grow,Ã¢â¬ says Wesley (58). Instead they focus mainly on clearly summarizing the effects of whatever they were sent to write about, and not revealing much, or any opinion of their own, as it Ã¢â¬Å"didn't fit within the neat prescribed formula of their thesisÃ¢â¬ (58). As a result, many essays that ad the potential for great Insight were cut and pruned until only the most bas ic bones remained.In other words, Instead of using It to create an Interesting, more thought provoking essay, students channel all of their energy Into keeping wealth the confines of three neatly connected ideas. Rather than endlessly revolving in this dry, staring them right in the face. They don't need to stick to five paragraphs. Especially when they have topics that are extremely complicated and must fit into, for example six to seven pages. The thought of using only three ideas and five paragraphs to write six to seven page paper seems absolutely ridiculous when one really ponders the notion.What Wesley introduces is that while there must be an introduction, body, and conclusion, there is no set rule that says there must only be one paragraph for each the introduction and conclusion, and only three paragraphs that explain three ideas. As long as you have a clear introduction, body, and conclusion, you can use as many paragraphs and ideas as you like! Wesley calls this the Ã¢â¬ Å"Rhetorical Process. Ã¢â¬ A symbiotic relationship is when two organisms share or feed after another in order to main. Take for example, the relationship between feeder shrimp and sharks.Feeder shrimp eat the organisms and plants that get caught in sharks' gills. By them doing so, the shark is able to breathe efficiently, and the shrimp get nutrients that allow them to live and grow. The student and teacher have a similar symbiotic relationship. When the student works harder for the teacher, the teacher works harder for the student, and in doing so, they are both able to grow. The student responds to a teacher's encouragement, and in return, the teacher responds to a student's enthusiasm.When that occurs, the student grows as an independent writer, and the teacher is allowed to accomplish their Job more fully. When teachers go beyond the minimum requirement and revoke the easy, cookie cutter way of teaching that turns out cookie cutter students to pass on to the next grade, but instead build on students strengths, work on strengthening their weaknesses, and teach each student according to their individual potential, they remove the boundaries on the students' learning, and set them free.One way of proposing this change in organizing ideas is o show students different styles of writing, from different time periods and from people of all ages and backgrounds, to show them that there really are many different ways to write. Wesley believes that when students are asked to Ã¢â¬Å"reflect on what format best enables them to voice their concerns and meets the needs of their audienceÃ¢â¬ (60), they are encouraged to become communicators, which will help them immensely out in the real world. Coming from a student's point of view, I agree wholeheartedly.
Thursday, January 2, 2020
A Comparative Study of the Shield of Achilles and the Shield of Aeneas In HomerÃ¢â¬â¢s great work, the Iliad, Achilles is given a set of armor, including a glorious shield which allows him to return to battle and carry out his revenge against Hector. Likewise, in VirgilÃ¢â¬â¢s Aeneid, Aeneas is sent a shield for the purpose of aiding him in defending Rome from invasion. However, these shields are made special not by their military value, but by the engravings that decorate their surfaces. AchillesÃ¢â¬â¢ shield holds engravings of common life during his time: farmers plowing the land, young men and women dancing in the vineyards, scenes of the countryside, slaves working for their kings, and armies fighting each other. On the other hand, AeneasÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦And there were young men on it and young girls, sought for their beauty with gifts of oxen, dancing, and holding hands at the wristÃ¢â¬ (Il., 18.590-594). In fact, the majority of the shield depicts common Greek life; this being a quality that distinguishes AchillesÃ¢â¬â¢ shield from those of other famous warriors and heroes. Epics and their heroes usually involve gods and god-like feats, which are still true in the Iliad, yet the engravings on this shield are an oxymoron of that style. Edwards best describes this in stating, Ã¢â¬Å"Like an enormous simile, the scenes on the shield hold the narrative still for a while as we gaze at them; and the content is like that of a simile, too Ã¢â¬â it is the ordinary life of mankind that we observe, not that of heroes or godsÃ¢â¬ (278). The shield is unique for the engravings it bears on its surface, however, its greater significance lies in what it represents, especially to AchillesÃ¢â¬â¢ being. At her sonÃ¢â¬â¢s birth, Thetis knew that Zeus had fated Achilles to die if he spilled HectorÃ¢â¬â¢s blood. Despite warning him of this, Thetis could not sway her sonÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to avenge Patrocles and kill Hector. Therefore, it is known from this point on that Achilles would soon die. Once he puts on the new armor, Achilles accepts his impending doom, and even accepts it earlier as he speaks to his mother, saying, Ã¢â¬ËIShow MoreRelatedSimilarities Between The Aeneid And The Iliad1029 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAeneid,Ã¢â¬ the readers follow the journey of a man named Aeneas who is a Trojan refugee who journeys from his homeland of Troy to find Rome for the generations of the future. Ã¢â¬Å"The IliadÃ¢â¬ is a story of the Trojan War and the hero of the story Achilles. Achilles was one of the bravest soldiers of the Greek army, but he was just as vain as he was brave. Both heroes showed a great amount of heroic actions throughout their perspective epics. Aeneas kills the Latin warrior Turnus and ventures away from hisRead MoreHow and to what purpose does Virgil use ekphrasis in the Aeneid3194 Words Ã |Ã 13 PagesJuno, and of the shield of Aeneas will be given. It became clear during the research for this essay that the main three ekphraseis Ã¢â¬â the aforementioned ones, and the panels on the door to ApolloÃ¢â¬â¢s temple at Cumae - interrelate. They have been described as f orming a kind of Ã¢â¬Ëstructural triptychÃ¢â¬â¢,5 and the full significance and interweaving of these depictions whilst fascinating, is unfortunately beyond the scope of this essay, however a brief examination of the relation the Shield, and Daedalus ekphraseisRead More Similaries Between Aeneid and Iliad Essay482 Words Ã |Ã 2 Pagestwo books. Virgil employs many of the same image patterns that Homer uses in The Iliad. The symbolism of fire, shields, and gates are used in both epic poems. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Fire is used frequently in The Iliad, but Virgil utilizes this image in his poem as well. Fire symbolizes both destruction and desire in VirgilÃ¢â¬â¢s poem, much like it did in The Iliad. In Book II, Aeneas uses the image of flames to describe the fate of Troy. Ã¢â¬Å"But now the fire roars across the walls; the tide of flameRead More`` The Temple Doors ``1546 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagespopular origin myths, one filled with pro-Augustan rhetoric meant to appeal to the Roman emperor of the time, VirgilÃ¢â¬â¢s Aeneid provides us with a detailed retelling of the titular protagonist AeneasÃ¢â¬â¢ journey from the desolate ruins of Troy to his triumphant slaying of Turnus. Throughout the epic, Virgil supplements AeneasÃ¢â¬â¢ travels with very vivid, extended scenes from the past and future depicted on different works of narrative art. Called ekphrases, there are three such instances of these drawn out, visuallyRead MoreThe Aeneid By Virgil Aeneid1689 Words Ã | Ã 7 Pagesre-founder of glorious Rome. Throughout the poem Virgil used prophecies to make connections between the founding of the settlement (later to be Rome) by Aeneas and RomeÃ¢â¬â¢s culminating point with Augustus, who, according to Virgil, descends from Aeneas. Virgil uses this poem as propaganda for the new emperor by creating a parallelism between Aeneas, destiny, and Augustus at the same time that it uses a hidden ironic critique of the new regime. In the Aeneid, VirgilÃ¢â¬â¢s main concern is the creation ofRead MoreThe Reading Of The Hebrew Bible1867 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesIliad by Homer, the main character Achilles is an infamous warrior defined as the definition of rage on the outside. A glimpse of a softer caring side is given periodically through out the excerpts as well. A side of hard and soft, good and bad, immortal and mortal to make up the mighty Achilles, the hero and legend. It can be gathered in the very beginning that Achilles is a strong and furious killer, as described in book 1 ( pg. 230) Rage: Sing: Goddess, Achilles rage, Black and murderous, thatRead MoreAeneas as a Hero and Leader Essay1057 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"Immediately AeneasÃ¢â¬â¢ limbs grow weak with cold: he groans, and stretching both hands to the stars cries out in with these words: Ã¢â¬Å"O three and four times blessed, you who were permitted to die before the faces of your fathers, beneath the lofty walls of Troy! O Diomedes, bravest of the race of Greeks! Why could I not have perished on the Trojan plain, and have poured out my life at your right hand, where fierce Hector lies by the spear of Achilles, where great Sarpedon, where the river Simois rollsRead MoreAnalysis Of The Poem Ekphrasis 1293 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesof this into consideration, is the description in Homer s Iliad of the shield of Achilles. In his book, Museum of Words, James A. W. Heffernan suggests that HomerÃ¢â¬âor whomever initially transcribed the words credited to himÃ¢â¬âallows the reader to dwell on two forms of art at once; the beauty of the language, juxtaposed with detailed description of the physical object. For Homer s re-creation of the scenes sculpted on the shield is not simply the earliest example of ekphrasis we know in western literature;Read MoreThe Aeneid: Virgils Heroic Underworld Essay3214 Words Ã |Ã 13 Pagesown. Far more than just copying scenes and ideas, Virgil expands and alters these themes to better tell his story, unique from the Greek originals he is drawing from. Virgil reveals what qualities he regards as heroic through the juxtaposition of AeneasÃ¢â¬â¢ character and the negative aspects of the underworld. By looking at which qualities are esteemed and derided respectively, we can identify the qualities that Virgil would like to emphasize positively to his readers. Also, we can argue that VirgilRead MoreSummary Of The Snake In Book Two Of The Aeneids1373 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesand so is the first Greek. Androgeos is murdered by Aeneas and his comrades, and here is when Androgeos is likened to a person who has accidentally heeded to a snake: Ã¢â¬Å"Stunned, he recoiled, swallowing back his words Like a man who threads his way through prickly brambles, Pressing his full weight on the ground, and blindly treads On a lurking snake and back he shrinks in instant fear As it rears in anger, puffs its blue-black neck.Ã¢â¬ (472-476) Aeneas and his comrades now act disturbingly like the snake
Wednesday, December 25, 2019
When it comes to comparing and contrasting two different cultures and morals the differences can be night and day. In Death Of A Salesman and Fences, these stories follow two middle-class families around the same time period (late 1940-1950Ã¢â¬â¢s), who are both facing problems within their own householdÃ¢â¬â¢s. From marital issues to failing father/son relationships, both of these stories paint a picture to the audience of what life in an urban family living in that time setting was like through the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes. And even yet with all the things between these two plays that make them alike, there are also many things that make them very different. In Fences we follow Troy Maxon, an ex baseball player and hard headed Ã¢â¬Å"family manÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Willys son Happy constantly stands in biffs shadow while Lyons is Troys son from a different mother who never saw Troy through his childhood due to Troy being in jail, unlike Corey, so its almost as if h e stands in Coreys shadow as well though Troy nor Rose treats him any differently. Unlike Willy and Linda, who seem to put more attention towards Biff than Happy. So it seems that the boys all have similarities between them but the way they are treated by their mother and father are where the differences lay. In Death Of A Salesman Willy treats his wife Linda, as though he does not appreciate her. He talks to her disrespectfully and even ignores her on occasion, and even though he does this blatantly she still stands by his side and acts as his support. In Fences Troy treats his wife Rose with a certain amount of respect but when he does step out of line Rose is not the one to take it. A perfect example of this would be the fact that both men had found a way to have an extramarital affair, and both for validations reasons. Linda chose to ignore the fact that Willy was having an affair. By ignoring what was happening, Linda did not have to admit to herself what was going on, and saved herself some difficult choices. Linda was not strong enough to make those choices. When Rose found out that Troy had been unfaithful she chose to leave him. And even through it all she still chose to take care of the child he had with anotherShow MoreRelatedComparing Death Of A Salesman And Fences By August Wilson947 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Romano Stewart English 1102 Friday: 9-11:45 a.m. November 30, 2017 Barry Hall In the books Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller, and Fences by August Wilson, there are common themes that run throughout the entire stories. Among these similarities there are two, hard working men who are trying to live the American dream but instead end up becoming frustrated by life. The main character of each book, Willy Loman and Troy Maxson are similar in many ways. They both try hard to be good men and fathersRead MoreComparing Death Of A Salesman And Fences By August Wilson946 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn the books Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller, and Fences by August Wilson, there are common themes and various similarities that run throughout the entire stories. Among these similarities there are two, hard working men who are trying to live the American dream but instead end up becoming frustrated by life and bitter towards the only people who really care for them. The main character of each book, Willy Loman and Troy Maxson are similar in many ways. They both try hard t o be good men andRead More Comparing Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller and Fences by August Wilson1267 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesComparing Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller and Fences by August Wilson Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller and Fences by August Wilson have similar themes of conflicts between fathers and sons, conflicts between husbands and wives, and the need to focus on a small unit of space in order to achieve success. In the process of developing these themes throughout the two plays, three similar symbolic elements are used including the insecure father figure, the other woman, and the garden. Read MoreComparing Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller and Fences by August Wilson 1403 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesFences written by August Wilson and Death of a Salesman written by Arthur Miller are two plays that could be considered very different in terms of their plot. The plots of both plays contain two very different cultural backgrounds which affects each protagonist differently. If the reader or audience looks past the plot into the theme and symbolisms used they can see that the plays are more similar than they are different. In spite of the different cultural backgro unds of each protagonist they bothRead MoreFather and Son in Death of a Salesman, and Fences Essay966 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesfather expects from his son. For instance in the narratives, Ã¢â¬Å"Death of a Salesman,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"FencesÃ¢â¬ both Willy and Troy are fathers who have a difficult time in earning respect from their sons, and being a role model for them. Between, Ã¢â¬Å"Death of a Salesman,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Fences,Ã¢â¬ both protagonists, Willy and Troy both depict the role of a father in distinctive ways; however, in their struggle, Willy is the more sympathetic of the two. In comparing Willy and Troy, as fathers, one could feel more sympathy inRead More The Importance of Gender in Boys and Girls by Alice Munro Essay3422 Words Ã |Ã 14 Pageslinoleum (113).Ã The girl is showing her opposition to her assigned gender role.Ã She does not like working in the house or preparing comparing and contrasting of the fathers world versus the mothers world.Ã The fathers world is composed of outdoor work, fox farming, has no emotion, expresses freedom and identified by light.Ã The fathers world is all about the death of animals.Ã So, there is no time for emotions.Ã This lack of emotions is also carried into the relationship between the girl and herRead MoreEssay about Definitions Assignment - Torts11187 Words Ã |Ã 45 PagesThey are re-entry upon land, recapture of chattel, and the Ã¢â¬Å"ShopkeeperÃ¢â¬â¢s RuleÃ¢â¬ . Example: The squatters who were arrested for dealing and using drugs in the SmithÃ¢â¬â¢s vacant home were there again last night. Mr. Smith happened to be onsite repairing a fence and he waived his hammer to the squatters to scare them away. One of the squatters was hit on his way out. Re-entry Upon Land Aspect Ã¢â¬â The re-entry upon land aspect relates to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s privilege to use force to re-enter land only if the taking ofRead MoreEthical Decision Making and Behavior13474 Words Ã |Ã 54 Pages____________________________________________________________________ Vignette 3 Earlier today, a salesman who works in Iowa called you and told you about an experience he had last week. One of his customers placed a small order of about $1,500 worth of product from corporate headquarters. The home office immediately shipped the package through a freight company, and it arrived the next day at the freight companyÃ¢â¬â¢s warehouse in Iowa. The salesman went to the warehouse just as it was closing and talked to one of the managersRead MoreLogical Reasoning189930 Words Ã |Ã 760 Pagesdecision, too. He wants to stay, but not by himself. Still, he isnt convinced by Juanitas reasons. Look, he says, if the stream were poisonous, everything in it would look dead. There are water spiders and plants living in the stream. Its no death trap. At this point you are faced with one of lifes little decisions: What do you do about the water situation? Go or stay? Someone else might make this decision by flipping a coin. A logical reasoner is more rational. 4 A first step inRead MoreDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words Ã |Ã 1617 PagesConflict 375 SKILL LEARNING 376 Interpersonal Conflict Management 376 Mixed Feelings About Conflict 376 Diagnosing the Type of Interpersonal Conflict 378 Conflict Focus 378 Conflict Source 380 Selecting the Appropriate Conflict Management Approach 383 Comparing Conflict Management and Negotiation Strategies 386 Selection Factors 386 Resolving Interpersonal Confrontations Using the Collaborative Approach A General Framework for Collaborative Problem Solving 391 The Four Phases of Collaborative Problem Solving
Tuesday, December 17, 2019
There are a multitude of aspects to consider as to why an individual would be dependent on the consumption of alcohol. One being the living environment of an individual has an effect on alcohol abuse according to the studies found, McCaul et al (2009) talks about this theme and goes on to say that the more licensed alcohol establishmentÃ¢â¬â¢s in one particular area means itÃ¢â¬â¢s more likely for someone to drink on a regular basis as itÃ¢â¬â¢s not out of their way. Another reason may be the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s emotional state can have an impact on how much they drink, according to Callanan et al. (2009) people consume alcohol as a way of coping with emotional factors such as stress and depression. Economic factors may be an underlying cause of alcohol abuse. Callanan et al (2009) found that the monotony of unemployment presents its self as an opportunity to consume alcohol which may become habitual. There are many negative psycho, social and economic factors that may affect an individual abusing alcohol. St. John et al (2009) said that anyone living in a more deprived area neighbourhoods are more likely to abuse alcohol which may be down to boredom as more people in deprived areas abuse alcohol as a way of freedom from the real world for a short period of time. Economic factors may be an underlying cause of alcohol abuse. Callanan et al (2009) found that the monotony of unemployment presents its self as an opportunity to consume alcohol which may become habitual. Lee et al (2009) states thatShow MoreRelatedEffects Of Alcohol On The Consumption Of Alcohol1288 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAlcohol consumption is highly prominent around the world and Australia. Most Australians have consumed alcohol at some point of time in their lives. Most individuals doing so at a level that is acceptable and does not lead to any ill health or injury. There is, however, an issue with the misuse and abus e of alcohol in Australia across all age groups. This paper will discuss the use of alcohol in Australia broadly before focusing on the consumption of alcohol in the 16-29 year old age group. ThisRead MoreAlcohol Consumption : The Effects Of Alcohol On The Body1312 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Alcohol Consumption: The Effects of Alcohol on the Body Thamara Jean-Jacques Professor: Nina Walker Biology 115 October 17, 2015 Lithonia Campus Abstract Drinking alcohol for a period of time or even binge drinking cause harm your heart. Alcohol increases the risk for heart attack, strokes, and hypertension. In 2013, a total of 71,713 people died of liver disease the ages ranged from 12 and older. Alcohol has also been known to affect the pancreas, large amounts of alcohol can confuseRead MoreThe Effects Of Alcohol On Alcohol Consumption1373 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageswhether or not alcohol should be prohibited. In most countries, at a certain age, adults are allowed to purchase alcohol without being limited to certain choices. However, with the rise of alcoholic products, there are concerns for public health and safety. Many people argue that restrictions should be placed on alcohol consumption. To begin with, there are several factors that involve in alcohol consumption. Studies have shown that there is a direct correlation between alcohol consumption and crimeRead MoreAdverse Effect Of Alcohol Consumption1321 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Adverse Effect of Alcohol Consumption In Whiting S. AlbertÃ¢â¬â¢s article Ã¢â¬Å"Alcohol Use Is HarmfulÃ¢â¬ he stated that alcohol is a chemical that contains hydrogen and carbon. Whiting stated further that the active ingredient of alcohol is ethyl alcohol, which is also known as ethanol. Alcohol is one of the few things that human being consume that do not need digestion. Alcohol appears the bloodstream immediately, thus, its intoxicating effects are felt instantly (1). Ã¢â¬Å"High levels of mortality, morbidityRead MoreThe Effects Of Stress On Alcohol Consumption2606 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesThe effects of stress on alcohol consumption since the start of nursing school Alcohol is chemically described as Ã¢â¬Å"a colorless, volatile, flammable liquid that is the intoxicating constituent of wine, beer, spirits and other drinks, and is also used as an industrial solvent and as fuel.Ã¢â¬ Humans have been making and consuming alcohol for at least 11,000 years (Brice, 2012). Alcohol is a central nervous system depressant, thought to enhance the action of GABA in the brain, an inhibitory transmitterRead MoreEffects Of Alcohol Consumption On The Uk1630 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAlcohol consumption in the UK has a clear tradition of having moderate and heavy drinking as seen in Plant and Plant s (2006) analysis of trends in alcohol consumption. It is also notable that most concerns about levels of alcohol consumption is directed particularly towards young people which most consider to be a link to crime and anti-social behaviour. As a result, there is no denying that a stigma has been attached to young people and alcohol. In the UK, general consumption is o n a rise. DataRead MoreThe Effects of Alcohol Consumption on College Students1227 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesÃ¯ » ¿ The Effects of Alcohol Consumption on College Students On a weekly basis, college students consume more alcohol to fit in with their peers. Prior research has shown how alcohol consumption can lead to negative effects. Typically, college students ignore the negative effects of consuming alcohol, in order to have a good time. College students are the point in their life where they are searching for new and exciting ways to fit inRead MoreThe Effects Of Heavy Alcohol Consumption On Heart Disease1729 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe negative effects of heavy alcohol consumption have been studied extensively, but recent studies have noted that moderate alcohol consumption correlate to positive health effects. However, the methods of comparing a group of moderate drinkers to a group of abstainers in these studies and the resulting observations have been criticized. Critics claim that comparing abstainers with moderate drinkers lead to biased observations that favor the moderate drinkers to appear to have a lower risk of coronaryRead MoreAlcohol Con sumption Of Ethanol Effects On Human Beings1608 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Alcohol is one of the most consumed substances in the entire world. Ã¢â¬Å"In 2013, 86.8 percent of people ages 18 or older reported that they drank alcohol at some point in their life timeÃ¢â¬ (NIAAA, n.d.). Alcohol is the result of fermented ethanol. Ethanol is a, Ã¢â¬Å"chemically and aromatic compound containing a hydroxyl groupÃ¢â¬ (Foster Marriott, 2006). The raw consumption of ethanol can have devastating effects on human beings, which is why it has to go through the process of fermentation. The fermentationRead MoreThe Effects Of Alcohol Consumption On Gender And Mate Selection2017 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesand individual consumes alcohol? This age old question has been studies over the past decades to understand the consequences of alcohol consumption, gender and mate selection. In their research, Abbeele et al. aimed to explore the relationship of alcohol consumption and rating of attractiveness. The participants consisted of heterosexual social alcohol consumers that conducted an attractiveness-rating task. It was discovered that individuals that consumed low doses of alcohol were perceived as more
Monday, December 9, 2019
Question: Discuss about theResearch Proposal for Organizational Stakeholders. Answer: Business Research Topic This research work would focus on the role of stakeholders like board of directors in organization productive. The initial research suggests that the board of directors have to establish a system of check and balances for effective governance system in the organization. Useem (2006) published recommended best governance practices for board decision making based on interviews with executives and board members of thirty-one companies. Good corporate governance is structured to prevent conflicts of interest and to incentivize leadership and board members to pursue organizational objectives (Abid Ahmed, 2014). The formal processes recommended by Useem (2006) included: creating a schedule for major topics; developing and revisiting committee charters; and establishing decision rights and defining decision protocols. Bailey, Washburn, and Faust (2000) added formal processes and expectations among board members would increase shareholder value. Transparency, disclosure, and accountability will also increase shareholder value. Without leadership at the Board level, when executive management has too few checks and balances to their power, an organizations ethical direction would seem to be totally dependent upon having an ethical leader. The research would be focused on the large organizations that have a working board of directors. This research work would establish the importance of board of directors for large organizations. In an organizational setting, the board of director is also responsible to create a positive culture in the organization. It is important that the Board of Directors must hold leaders accountable for their actions. In fact, it is the Board that has the ultimate responsibility for ensuring that an organizations leadership lives up to expectations in terms of moral or ethical leadership. The specific research questions of this research work can be discussed as below: Research Questions The key research questions of this research work can be highlighted as: What is the role of board of directors towards organizational governance? How can board of directors create a positive culture in the organization so that organization can achieve its goals and objectives? How can board of directors enable a platform for leaders to develop within the organization? Research Methodologies Techniques The research work would be based on mix methods of research. It means that the research would use both primary research methods and secondary research methods. This research work would be completed as a combination of primary research and secondary research. The research would start an initial hypothesis of null hypothesis. The initial hypothesis of this research work can be discussed as: Research Hypothesis The initial research hypothesis of this research work is that board of directors has a positive impact towards organizational development. The board of directors helps organizations in both direct and indirect manner. This research work has both independent variable and dependent variable. The dependent and independent variables for this research work can be discussed as: Independent variable: The function of board of directors in large organizations. Dependent variable: The organizational productivity This research work has few limitations or assumptions. The limitations or the assumptions of this research work can be discussed as: Assumptions / Limitations The key assumptions of the limitations of this research work can be discussed as: This research would be done for large and multinational organizations. These are the organizations that have a global presence. The large and global organizations are selected for this research work, as it is easy to get the data for large organizations as compared to small organizations. This research would be applicable for the firms that have a permanent board of directors with 10 or more than 10 members. The research methods would be a combination of primary research and secondary research. These methods can be discussed in detail as below: Primary Research Methods The primary research methods would include online questionnaire and focused group interview (Pickard, 2013). A random sample would be used to select a sample of 80 people. However, there would be one constraint on the population. The 80 people would be selected at random from the corporations that have a working board. The questions would be mainly close ended in nature. The primary research would also include focused group interview. As a part of focused group interview, interviewer would create a focused group of 10 to 12 respondents. The series of interviews would be conducted with this focused group. The questions with the participants of focused group would be mainly open ended in nature. Secondary Research Methods The secondary research would be completed through literature review. The literature review would also be a critical part of this research work. The sources from the literature would be used to complete the research. As a part of literature review the peer review journals would be used. There are lot of articles and research in the library database and these articles would be a great source of information. The thumb rule of literature review is that the sources no more than 5 years old would be used (Khan, 2013). To complete the literature review, researcher would use the latest research articles. Research Process There would be five key phases of this research work. Each of the phases would be completed in an independent manner. The various phases of the research can be discussed as: Phase 1: Identify the Problem The problem identification phase would be the first phase of this research work (Zikmund Babin, 2012). This research work would focus on the role of stakeholders like board of directors in organization productive. Phase 2: Background Study and Research Questions formulation There are three key research questions in this research. These questions are: What is the role of board of directors towards organizational governance? How can board of directors create a positive culture in the organization so that organization can achieve its goals and objectives? How can board of directors enable a platform for leaders to develop within the organization? Step 3: Secondary Research The secondary research would be mainly focused on literature review. The insights from the existing literature would be used to complete the secondary research for this research work. Data Collection and Data Analysis The data collection and data analysis would be a key part of this research work. The data collection and data analysis would follow the stages of primary research and secondary research. The data would be collected from online survey or questionnaire, focused group interview and literature review. The data collected through primary research would be quantitative and the data collected through secondary research would be mainly qualitative in nature. The tools like Microsoft Word, SPSS and Microsoft Excel could also be used to analyze the data. The raw data would be compiled to get meaningful insights. Results Conclusion The results and conclusion would be the last section of the research work. In this phase, the focus of the researcher would be to develop the research report and share the results with required stakeholders. The results of the research work would be published in the form of a report. Data Collection Analysis Methods The data collection and data analysis would be a key part of this research work. The data collection and data analysis would follow the stages of primary research and secondary research. The data would be collected from online survey or questionnaire, focused group interview and literature review (Baskerville, 2016). The data collected through primary research would be quantitative and the data collected through secondary research would be mainly qualitative in nature. The tools like Microsoft Word, SPSS and Microsoft Excel could also be used to analyze the data. The raw data would be compiled to get meaningful insights. Expected Research Outcome It is expected that researcher would be able to establish a positive relationship between the dependent variable and the independent variable. It is expected that research would highlight the importance of board of directors. The research should be useful for the corporations that have a working board. References Abid, G., Ahmed, A. (2014). Failing in corporate governance and warning signs of a corporate collapse. Pakistan Journal Of Commerce Social Sciences, 8(3), 846-866. Bailey, D., Washburn, D., Faust, Q. (2000, November 12). Creating the ultimate board in the Sarbanes-Oxley/post-Enron era [Online posting]. Retrieved from https://www.andrewskurth.com/insights-CreatingtheUltimateBoardintheSarbanesOxley.html Baskerville, R.L. and Wood-Harper, A.T., 2016. A critical perspective on action research as a method for information systems research. InEnacting Research Methods in Information Systems: Volume 2(pp. 169-190). Springer International Publishing. Useem, M. (2006). How well-run boards make decisions. Harvard Business Review, 84(11), 130-138. Retrieved from https://hbr.org/2006/11/how-well-run-boards-make-decisions Khan, A., Muttakin, M.B. and Siddiqui, J., 2013. Corporate governance and corporate social responsibility disclosures: Evidence from an emerging economy.Journal of business ethics,114(2), pp.207-223. Pickard, A. J. (2013).Research methods in information. Facet Publ.
Sunday, December 1, 2019
IPS officers are recruited from the state police cadres and from the rigorous Civil Services Examination conducted by Union Public Service Commission every year.  Due to an ongoing shortage of police officers in India, the Ministry of Home Affairs proposed the creation of an Indian Police Service Limited Competitive Examination to be conducted by UPSC.  The Civil Services Examination has a three stage competitive selection process. At stage one, there is an objective type examination called the preliminary exam. This is a qualifying examination. It consists of a General Studies paper and an aptitude test. Only the candidates who pass this can appear for the Main Examination which consists of nine papers. Each candidate has to select an optional subject (one paper) and to take six General Studies papers, an Essay, an English language paper and a regional language paper. This is followed by an interview. After selection for the IPS, candidates are allocated to a cadre. We will write a custom essay sample on Police: States and Territories of India and Civil Services Examination or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page There is one cadre in each Indian state, with the exception of three joint cadres: Assam-Meghalaya, Manipur-Tripura, and Arunachal Pradesh-Goa-Mizoram-Union Territories (AGMUT). Two-thirds of the strength of every cadre is filled directly by IPS officers and the remaining are promoted from the respective states cadre officers. State Police Services (India) Indian Police Service and Law enforcement in India The State Police Services , simply known as State Police or SPS are police services under the control of respective state governments of the States and territories of India. The candidates selected for the SPS are usually posted as Deputy Superintendent of Police or Assistant Commissioner of Police once their probationary period ends. On prescribed satisfactory service in the SPS, the officers are nominated to the Indian Police Service.  The recruitment to this service is done by the respective State Governments, usually through State Public Service Commissions. The recruitment to SPS is also on the same pattern as that for IPS. The only difference is that the recruitment of SPS officers is made by the State Public Service Commission concerned through usually a combined competitive examination for State Civil Services which in the case of IPS is through the All-India Civil Services Examination conducted by Union Public Service Commission . However, in case of Union Territory, recruitment to SPS is also made by Union Public Service Commission through the Civil Services Examination as one of the Group-B Services. State police requirement in large States like Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh is greater as compared to the smaller States like Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Kerala, Sikkim and north-eastern States. After selection, which again is based upon the choice of service and merit of a candidate, selected candidates are required to undergo vigorous probationary training before getting posted as ACP or DSP.